SeaWaves Technology, J. (2010). 10 Most Sexist Print Ads from the 1950s | Business Pundit." Business Pundit: Your Daily Dose of Smart Business Opinion.   <>.

“10 Most Sexiest Print Ads From The 1950s” is an article that explains how women have been exploited and degraded through advertising in the mid twentieth century. It focuses on the 1950s, which was a time when people did not think twice about how women were depicted in the media. The cite also provides numerous illustrations and descriptions of actual ads from the 1950s that portray women in this demeaning light. This source is useful to those who want to learn about sexism of women in advertising in the early and mid-twentieth century. 

Friedan, B. (1963). The Feminine Mystique. New York: W.W. Norton. 

The Feminine Mystique was written by Betty Friedan in 1963 and is known to have started the second wave of women’s rights movements in the United States. The book is essentially a social study of American women during the post-war period of 1945 to 1960. This was a time when women were strictly housewives and had no other skills or freedoms. The author presses the fact that she wants women to step out of their comfort zones and gain the freedom and equality they have long been deprived of. This source was extremely significant in understanding the motivations women had in starting the Women’s Movement. 

Pandhe, S. (1988). Women's Studies and Women's Movement.Economic and Political Weekly 23.40: 2049-050. JSTOR. <>.

“Women’s Studies and Women’s Movement,” by Sunita Pandhe, discusses how the Women’s Movement started and continued to build momentum throughout the 1960s and 1970s. She explains what types of issues were addressed during the movement and how people reacted towards them. The article also explores why women’s rights became a main focus during the twentieth century and what sparked the movement. Lastly, Pandhe explains the significance of the Women’s Movement to the history and future of Women’s Studies. This article was helpful in that it focused on how the effects of the Women’s Movement has contributed to the study of women today. 

Walker, N. A. (1998). The Role of the Women's Magazines.Women's Magazines, 1940-1960: Gender Roles and the Popular Press. Boston: Bedfords/St. Martin's. 1-11. 

The book, Women's Magazines 1940-1960: Gender Roles and the Popular Press, was written by Nancy A. Walker in 1998. The Introduction section, “The Role of the Women’s Magazines”, focuses on how women were viewed in several different magazines before and during the 1960s. It explains how the housewife stereotype of women was commonly portrayed until the Women’s Movement began in the 1960s. After the movement started, several mainstream magazines who supported the movement changed the way they advertised with women. This source was helpful in discussing how the media’s view of women changed for the better after the Women’s Movement began. 

Sebastian, S. (2008). Beauty, Biology, and Society.Serendip. <>.

Beauty, Biology, and Society, written by Sujatha Sebastian in 2008, gives an in-depth discussion about how different societies and cultures perceive beauty. Sebastian also explains how different biological and physical features are associated with people from different parts of the world. She explains how the biological makeup of human beings influences what we consider to be attractive in one another. The literature further reviews what sort of features are considered to be beautiful in each culture, why they are significant, and how they have changed over time. This source was helpful in explaining the biological and cultural side of beauty and it’s importance to different societies.

Alice, L. (2010). How the Media Changes Our Perception of Beauty - by Lynette Alice - Helium. Helium - Where Knowledge Rules. <>.

“How the Media Changes Our Perception of Beauty” is an article written by Lynette Alice that discusses the impact all types of media have on society’s view of beauty. She explains how styles and trends have transformed since the early twentieth century and what sorts of traits are considered as beauty. The article reviews why media is the main culprit effecting women’s body image and how it is so affective. This source was effective in that it was able to clearly explain how women’s beauty has changed over time and how the media has influenced this change.

Zimmerman, A. & Dahlberg, J. (2008).  The Sexual Objectification of Women in Advertising: A Contemporary Cultural Perspective.  Journal of Advertising Research, 48(1), 71-79.  Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

"The Sexual Objectification of Women in Advertising: A Contemporary Cultural Perspective" offered a lot of information relating to the topic.  The article included some brief history of feminist beliefs regarding women in advertising, both present and past, and then offered information on how attitudes have changed slightly.  It talked about how the women of the second movement were totally against how women were showed in advertising while the women of today who have embraced sex appeal as a way of empowering women, don't view the images as nearly as offensive.  The article was just a very good source for a quick overview of women in advertising and how the feelings towards the images have changed.

Bessenoff, G. (2006). CAN THE MEDIA AFFECT US? SOCIAL COMPARISON, SELF-DISCREPANCY, AND THE THIN IDEAL. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30(3), 239-251. Retrieved from Gender Studies Database database.

"The media is has an immediate impact on the way girls and women are portrayed to look like.  Models who are very thin and beautiful are not what the average female really look like. Unfortunately, everyday women look at these ads and believe that this is what they are supposed to look like. Those who are dissatisfied with their bodies are more susceptible to eating disorders. Women compare themselves to women in ads and try to achieve this look by starving themselves or binging and purging their food.  This problem mainly occurs in women because of the sexual and thin-ideal images in advertisements.  Media can partially be blamed for eating disorders and body dissatisfaction through comparison of the women in advertisements."

Plakoyiannaki, E., Mathioudaki, K., Dimitratos, P., &  Zotos, Y.     (2008). Images of       Women in Online Advertisements of Global Products: Does Sexism Exist?.     Journal of Business    Ethics, 83(1), 101-112. Retrieved from Gender Studies Database on November 16, 2010.                                

This article focuses on whether or not females are stereotyped on online advertisements and explores the roles of females across web pages for different audience types.  It hints that women are generally portrayed in a stereotypical way, which supports their hypothesis that is frequent on online advertisements.This article is important to me because it widens the sample in which I am using for my website.  Not only will I have information about domestic advertisement stereotypes, I will also be able to see if sexism in advertisements are the same on a global level.

Robinson, B., & Hunter, E. (2008). Is Mom Still Doing It All?.   Journal of Family Issues, 29(4), 465-486. Retrieved from Gender Studies Database on November 16, 2010.

This article is a report of 299 advertisements from four of the top ten magazines in 2005 in an attempt to see how contemporary magazines portray housework.  This study examines whether or not advertisements have changed to reflect families of the contemporary American culture.  In the end it will compare whether they follow traditional roles or adapted to new ones.  This report will be extremely helpful in my research because it will show whether or not a housework stereotype still exists, and more importantly whether the image sells better or not.